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Water Softeners.. Solutions for Combatting Hard Water


A water softener works on the principle called "cation exchange," in which ions of mainly hardness but also iron and manganese are exchanged for sodium or potassium ions, reducing their concentrations to insignificant levels. The exchange occurs within a tank using tiny synthetic resin beads made from a special plastic.After a period of use, the sodium or potassium ions are completely exchanged and the unit has to be "backwashed" or "regenerated." This requires the use of sodium or potassium chloride, which is loaded into a "brine tank" and dissolved to form a brine solution used to recharge the resin beads.

About Hard Water

Calcium (Ca ) & Magnesium (Mg)

The term hardness refers to the quantity of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water. These minerals, which come primarily from limestone type rock formations, are found to some degree in almost all natural waters. Calcium and magnesium cause problems for two principal reasons:

  • When the water is warmed, they precipitate out of solution and form a hard, rock-like scale. This scale accelerates corrosion, restricts flow, and reduces heat transfer in water heaters and boilers.
  • When they combine with soap, they react to form a curd, which interferes with cleaning, dries out skin, and leaves deposits on plumbing and clothes (bathtub ring; ring around the collar).

Hardness is measured in parts per million (or the equivalent mg/L) or in grains per gallon (gpg). Note: if the water analysis is given in ppm as CaCO3 then 1 gpg = 17.1 ppm. A common aspirin tablet weighs 5 grains). There is no established limit for the acceptable level of hardness in water, but it is generally considered to start to become problematic at around 3 gpg.

Waters which naturally contain very little hardness can also be problematic because they may be corrosive.


Avantapure Water Softener

Learn all about the benefits offered by our Avantapure Water Softener

Water Hardness Table

Here is a simple water hardness table for your reference. A simple water test will determine the water hardness in your home and allow to determine how to treat your water. Additionally, we test for other components in your water which we will go over with you. 

Water Hardness LevelGrains Per Gallon (GPG)
Soft Water0 - 1 gpg
Slightly Hard Water1 - 3.5 gpg
Moderately Hard Water3.5 - 7 gpg
Hard Water7 - 10 gpg
Very Hard WaterOver 10.5 gpg

Schedule an In-Home Visit Today

We will arrange for one of our product and installation specialists to come to thoroughly evaluate your home's requirements before providing you with a detailed action plan.

Kim Ackley
1 review

Highly recommend! Paul came to our house to give us an estimate on a water softening system and immediately we felt comfortable with their very detailed approach. Dave, our installer, was courteous, thorough and was happy to answer all our questions before beginning the work. When we had a concern, it was immediately handled the same day! We obtained a couple of quotes on a new water softener, and felt Professional Water Systems provided the best quality and service; and are very happy with our choice!

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